Fragmentación del ADN espermático en parejas tratadas por fertilización in vitro

Kenia Rodríguez Martínez, Dianelys Ramírez Blanco, Yudelkis Benítez Cordero, Reinaldo Gutiérrez Gutiérrez

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Resumen

Introducción: Se estudian los factores que afectan el ADN espermático en la actualidad y en qué medida influyen en la aplicación de las técnicas de reproducción asistida de alta tecnología. La fertilización in vitro es un tema de interés que ha motivado a muchos investigadores.

Objetivo: Determinar la relación que existe entre el índice de fragmentación del ADN de la cromatina espermática y los resultados de la técnica de fertilización in vitro en parejas infértiles.

Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en 107 parejas infértiles remitidas del Programa Nacional de Atención a la pareja infértil, donde se precisó la asociación entre el potencial fertilizante y las variables de resultados: tasa de fertilización, calidad embrionaria y embarazo. Se estudiaron, además, algunos factores que pueden influir en el grado de fragmentación del ADN. 

Resultados: El potencial fertilizante no se relacionó con la tasa de fertilización, ni con el embarazo clínico, pero sí con la calidad embrionaria (P= 0.036). La edad paterna resultó ser estadísticamente significativa en relación con el potencial fertilizante (P= 0.032).     La presencia de varicocele se asoció con el bajo potencial fertilizante (OR= 5,27;           IC 95 % [1.34 - 24.09]).

Conclusiones: El índice de fragmentación del ADN de la cromatina espermática afecta negativamente la calidad de los embriones a transferir. La edad y el varicocele se relacionan positivamente con el grado de fragmentación del ADN espermático. El consumo de alcohol, el hábito de fumar y la exposición a agentes físicos y químicos no se relacionaron con el índice de fragmentación del ADN espermático en este estudio.

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